Hezekiah and Sennacherib – 2 Chronicles 31-32

The Taylor Prism from the Neo-Assyrian empire ...

The Taylor Prism from the Neo-Assyrian empire tells the story of king Sennacherib’s third campaign and includes descriptions of his conquests in Judah, some of which are described from another point of view in the old testament of the Bible. This picture has been assembled from File:Taylor Prism-1.jpg and File:Taylor Prism-2.jpg. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the temple was restored, the people of Israel went out into the cities of Judah and tore down the Asherim and the high places throughout Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim , and Manasseh. Then they returned to their own cities. Hezekiah then had the priests and Levites divided up according to their service. He made his own contribution for the offerings; and then he had the people resume the practice of tithing and bringing their firstfruits for the priests and the Levites. Because God had blessed the people richly, the contributions were so plentiful, that there was a great abundance over what was needed. Because of Hezekiah’s leadership,  the people prospered greatly.

In chapter 32, Sennacherib of Assyria came and invaded Judah. And Hezekiah had the people go to all of the springs and the brook that ran through the area and stopped the water from flowing — thereby depriving Sennacherib‘s army the benefit of the water. He then had the walls rebuilt and towers erected upon them; and he had them make weapons and shields. He spoke encouragingly to the people and told them the same thing that Moses and Joshua had told the people so long ago — “Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or dismayed before the king of Assyria and all the horde that is with him.” He assured them that God was with them, and the people were comforted.

Sennacherib sent servants and wrote letters to mock God, trying to discourage and dismay the people. Then God sent an angel, who struck down his forces. Sennacherib returned to his land defeated, and was killed by his own sons. Hezekiah became very sick, and he prayed to God and was delivered from death. But his heart grew proud and he brought wrath upon the people until he humbled himself. Hezekiah and the people prospered greatly until his death. And then his son Manasseh reigned.

(This year’s reading plan for Luke, Acts, and 1 and 2 Chronicles averages just 15 verses per day – 5 days per week!)
Schedule for this week

/Bob’s boy
___________________

some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please visit this site’s menu item “The Author’s Books” for info on the author’s books, website, and Facebook page.

All of my comments in this blog are solely my responsibility. When reading any commentary, you should always refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word.

 


 

 

 

 

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Hezekiah Reigns as King – 2 Chronicles 29-30

Ezechias-Hezekiah was the son of Ahaz and the ...

Ezechias-Hezekiah was the son of Ahaz and the 14th king of Judah. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the death of Ahaz, his son Hezekiah began his reign at the age of 25. Here was a breath of fresh air as far as kings go in the southern kingdom. After the miserable reign of his father, the temple was in poor shape. Hezekiah set about getting the temple cleansed, and he called the Levites together and charged them with consecrating themselves, cleansing the temple, and restoring worship in the temple. They completed the task, and the people celebrated and rejoiced with thank offerings. Notice in verse 17, it took 16 days to cleanse and consecrate the temple. Ahaz had caused all of this.

Hezekiah wrote letters and sent couriers throughout Israel and Judah telling the people to consecrate themselves and come to celebrate the Passover. Some of them laughed and mocked, but many did come. Some did not consecrate themselves, however. Hezekiah prayed on their behalf, saying “May the good Lord pardon everyone who sets his heart to seek God, the Lord, the God of his fathers, even though not according to the sanctuary’s rules of cleanness.” Verse 26 says that God heard him and that He healed the people. The festivities were good for the people and it was a great time of spiritual awakening. Verse 23 says that the whole assembly agreed to keep the feast an extra seven days.

 

(This year’s reading plan for Luke, Acts, and 1 and 2 Chronicles averages just 15 verses per day – 5 days per week!)
Schedule for this week

/Bob’s boy
___________________

some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please visit this site’s menu item “The Author’s Books” for info on the author’s books, website, and Facebook page.

All of my comments in this blog are solely my responsibility. When reading any commentary, you should always refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word.

 


 

 

 

 

Prophet Of Royal Blood? – Zephaniah

Stamped bulla sealed by a servant of King Heze...

Stamped bulla sealed by a servant of King Hezekiah, formerly pressed against a cord; unprovenanced Redondo Beach collection of antiquities (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The prophet Zephaniah is introduced this way in verse one of chapter one of his book: “The word of the Lord that came to Zephaniah the son of Cushi, son of Gedaliah, son of Amariah, son of Hezekiah, in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah.” Many believe that the Hezekiah mentioned here was King Hezekiah, who reined between 715 and 686 B.C.  If so, that would make Zephaniah his great-great-grandson. This would fit the timeline generally accepted for Zephaniah’s prophecy as during the reign of Josiah (640 – 609 B.C.)

There is some reason to believe that Zephaniah may have encouraged Josiah’s reforms. If so, since those reforms started in the 18th year of his reign (2 Kings 22-23), Zephaniah’s prophecies likely occurred before 622 -621 B.C.  Judah was at the height of its rampant immorality and idolatry pattern, with good king Josiah replacing two previous kings that were extremely wicked (Amon and Manasseh). His message, prevalent throughout the book, was “the day of the Lord is coming” – which always means that a time of decisive action by God is at hand.

Michelangelo's Hezekiah-Manasseh-Amon. Traditi...

Michelangelo’s Hezekiah-Manasseh-Amon. Traditionally Manasseh is the man on the right and Amon is the child on the left. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The first mention of the phrase in this book comes in Zephaniah 1:7, which also says “…the Lord has prepared a sacrifice and consecrated his guests.” That sacrifice is Judah, and verses 3-4 warn that God is bringing massive destruction on His people and Jerusalem. Verses 14-18 expound in darkly poetic terms on just what “the day of the Lord” will mean to them, and the picture cannot be ambiguous to anyone. Chapter 2 tells them what they should do – which of course is to repent. Zephaniah 3:1-4 present the reasons for God’s judgment on Jerusalem, placing blame on corrupt and evil leadership as well:

Woe to her who is rebellious and defiled,
the oppressing city!
She listens to no voice;
she accepts no correction.
She does not trust in the Lord;
she does not draw near to her God.

Her officials within her
are roaring lions;
her judges are evening wolves
that leave nothing till the morning.

Chapter 3:14-20 conclude with a promise of a glorious time of restoration and a Messianic future. It promises the survival of a remnant. The best advice for the faithful comes in Chapter 2:3:

Seek the Lord, all you humble of the land,
who do his just commands;
seek righteousness; seek humility;
perhaps you may be hidden
on the day of the anger of the Lord

The Book of Zephaniah seems to come very close to the time of the impending destruction by the Chaldeans. But the book does promise judgment on the other nations, particularly their wicked neighbors, for their complicity. Chapter 2:4-10 promises that the remnant of God’s people will have their day where those nations are concerned – promises that history itself has told us that God has kept:

For Gaza shall be deserted,
and Ashkelon shall become a desolation;
Ashdod’s people shall be driven out at noon,
and Ekron shall be uprooted.

Woe to you inhabitants of the seacoast,
you nation of the Cherethites!
The word of the Lord is against you,
O Canaan, land of the Philistines;
and I will destroy you until no inhabitant is left.

And you, O seacoast, shall be pastures,
with meadows for shepherds
and folds for flocks.
The seacoast shall become the possession
of the remnant of the house of Judah,
on which they shall graze,
and in the houses of Ashkelon
they shall lie down at evening.

For the Lord their God will be mindful of them
and restore their fortunes.
“I have heard the taunts of Moab
and the revilings of the Ammonites,
how they have taunted my people
and made boasts against their territory.

Therefore, as I live,” declares the Lord of hosts,
the God of Israel,
“Moab shall become like Sodom,
and the Ammonites like Gomorrah,
a land possessed by nettles and salt pits,
and a waste forever.

The remnant of my people shall plunder them,
and the survivors of my nation shall possess them.”
This shall be their lot in return for their pride,
because they taunted and boasted
against the people of the Lord of hosts.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
image © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  

Micah of Moresheth-Gath

Often, when the Bible talks about or introduces a prophet or someone else of importance, it does so by referring to their lineage – usually their father (Isaiah “the son of Amoz,” Jonah “son of Amittai,” James and John  “sons of Zebedee”). But Micah is introduced as Micah “of Moresheth” (verse 1), otherwise known as Moresheth-gath (verse 14). Moresheth-Gath was a town in Judah’s Shephela – a lowland region in south-central Israel. It was captured by Sennacherib in 701 B.C.

A mound, or tell, of Maresha, one suggested site of Micah's hometown Moresheth.

A mound, or tell, of Maresha, one suggested site of Micah’s hometown Moresheth.

Verse one lists the kings of Judah during Micah’s time (Jotham 750 – 735 B.C., Ahaz 735 – 715 B.C., and Hezekiah 715 – 687 B.C.). This means that he was around roughly at the same time as Isaiah and Hosea. But since Uzziah (767 – 739 B.C.) is not listed, we can be fairly certain that he prophesied during the latter half of that century. He was from the southern kingdom, but prophesied to both the northern kingdom (Samaria here) and the southern kingdom. The message was of the same problems some of the other prophets spoke about – idolatry, of course, and social injustice (the rich oppressing the poor usually).

Assyria’s power was ever-increasing, but Israel was not economically affected during the first half of the eighth century. In fact, a wealthy upper class became increasingly prevalent. And along with them came more idolatry and more oppression of the poor. Then comes Ahaz, who was nothing more than a puppet for Assyria, followed by heavy taxes by the state of Assyria, which led to even more oppression of the poor. Micah’s message was that doom was coming. But he did offer hope in that there would ultimately be a restoration. He would have been there for the saving of Jerusalem from the Assyrians under Hezekiah (2 Kings 18-19), as well as for the ultimate defeat by the empire

In chapter 5, Micah brings the prophecy of a ruler to be born in Bethlehem – a town nobody would have considered important. Micah 5:2 is cited in Matthew 2:6 and John 7:42. The abiding theme of the book is of judgment and of salvation (compare chapter 2 with chapter 5). It is about a God who keeps His promises – even those that say He will bring destruction on the wicked if they do not repent. And it is about a God who is both a king and a shepherd, and will forgive and restore a remnant. But that king will exercise vengeance on the nations that do not obey (Micah 5:1-15).

/Bob’s boy
___________________
image © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  

 

Minor Prophets Part 1 – Hosea

As the Book of Hosea tells us in the opening verses, Hosea was called by God as a prophet during the time of Jeroboam II (whose last year of reign was ~753 BC) and Hezekiah (who reigned from about 729-687 BC, the first 14 years of which were as a co-regent with his father, Ahaz). Hosea was a prophet from the northern kingdom, prophesying to the people of the northern kingdom. It was a time of rampant and wanton idolatry that was beyond control, leading to Hezekiah’s reforms (2 Chronicles 29-32).

Temple of Baal at Palmyra, Syria. (III)

Temple of Baal at Palmyra, Syria. (III) (Photo credit: isawnyu)

The message in this book is about the betrayal and grief that God feels because of the unfaithfulness to him (idolatry) by the people of Israel. Hosea lived the message, as the Lord commanded him to marry a temple prostitute. Verse 2 of chapter 1 summarizes God’s feeling on that very well: “When the Lord first spoke through Hosea, the Lord said to Hosea, ‘Go, take to yourself a wife of whoredom and have children of whoredom, for the land commits great whoredom by forsaking the Lord.'” And again in Hosea 3:1: “And the Lord said to me, ‘Go again, love a woman who is loved by another man and is an adulteress, even as the Lord loves the children of Israel, though they turn to other gods and love cakes of raisins.'” Raisin cakes were used in fertility rites during idol worship, The cakes were sometimes molded into the shape of a female goddess.

To make Israel’s betrayal of the Lord worse, their idolatry had become so much a part of the culture that they mixed their worship of the “god” Baal with their worship of God, referring to the Lord Himself as Baal, and crediting Baal with all of the things that God had done for them (see, for example, Hosea 2:16-20).   Both Paul and Peter cite Hosea 2:23 to illustrate the inclusion of Gentiles in Christianity (Romans 9:25-26 and 1 Peter 2:9-10). Even their sacrifices to the lord had become so ceremonially polluted that they were offensive, rather than pleasing God. Hosea 6:6 sums up the Lord’s attitude toward their sacrifice: “for I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.”

Hosea ministered during the latter half of the eighth century. This was a very volatile time in Israel’s history, and saw the rise of the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III, followed by several other kings that would bring Assyrian dominance. Israel had a succession of kings until Hoshea (732-722 BC), whose rebellion against the Assyrians led to the end of the northern kingdom (2 Kings 17). Hosea’s message centered on the worship of Baal which he obviously believed to be the reason for Israel’s doom. Baal was the weather god that idolaters believed to have control over agriculture, fertility, and rainfall. Israel being a largely agricultural society, they were always ripe for Baal worship.

Hosea and Gomer, from the Bible Historiale. De...

Hosea and Gomer, from the Bible Historiale. Den Haag, MMW, 10 B 23 426r (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Baal was worshiped at various shrines where he was called by names such as Baal-peor (Hosea 9:10) and Baal-gad (Joshua 11:17). Sometimes the scripture refers to “them” as “the Baals” (Judges 2:11, 3:7, and 8:33). Beyond the supposed fertility and weather aspects, such worship had a tremendous appeal to sexuality (hence the ritual prostitution), and also such things as drunkenness, incest, bestiality, and even human sacrifice. Sexual acts were believed to make Baal respond favorably to the subject.

The Book of Hosea helps us view idolatry from God’s perspective, so we can apply it to our lives. Today, our “gods” do not seem much like the gods and goddesses of those days. But Idolatry is the act or lifestyle that places someone or something in the central and prominent place in our lives that rightly belongs to God. Our betrayals hurt the Lord just as much. The prophet in this book, makes it clear that God will punish such idolatry, and illustrates Israel’s unfaithfulness in many different ways. Hosea portrays Israel as an adulterous wife, an ungrateful son, a stubborn heifer, and more. But the book shows us as well that even Israel’s unfaithfulness and stubbornness are no match for God’s capacity for redeeming love.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
image © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  

Psalm 119:121-128; Psalm 76 – Who Can Stand Before You?

ayinThis stanza of Psalm 119 begins each line with the 16th letter of the Hebrew Aleph-Bet, “ayin.”  The psalmist repeats three times the reference to himself as God’s servant.  In 121, he declares his faithfulness to God as that servant, asking Him for deliverance from those which oppress him.  In verse 126, he urges the Lord to act now because his laws have been broken.  Whether this refers to a specific occasion or simply the general state of God’s people at the time, we are not told, but it hardly matters.  It is a prayer to God for His justice.

It is the general consensus of most commentators that Psalm 76 centers around God’s destruction of Sennacherib‘s army during the time of Hezekiah.  This would make “Asaph” in the superscription actually be those Levite descendants which were so named.  The complete destruction and defeat described in verses 3-8 fits this line of thought.

Sennacherib's army

Miraculous destruction of Sennacherib’s army.

Salem in verse 2 is the name of the kingdom city of Melchizedek (Genesis 14:18), and it is used synonymously with Jerusalem, especially in reference to Adonizedek (see Joshua 10:1-3).  The references to the wrath of man praising God in verse 10, and the following verses about the victory of God’s people over the kings of man, echo well the insolence of Sennacherib being his downfall.  His anger with God’s people brought him to pit an assault on God’s people with an army led by blasphemous representatives (2 Kings 18:17-36).   Sennacherib’s defiance and mockery of the Lord were followed by Isaiah’s prophecy of his downfall and the subsequent crushing of his army by the angel of the Lord (2 Kings 19:14-36, Isaiah 37:36).

Read or listen to audio of ESV version of this selection from this link.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  For questions and help, please see the “FAQ” and “Summaries” pages there.

Psalms 48 – Great Is the Lord!

The Pool of Hezekiah, Jerusalem

The Pool of Hezekiah, Jerusalem (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Psalm 48 is considered by some to be the last of a trilogy (46, 47, 48), all three of which appear to express praise and rejoicing for their deliverance from Sennacherib‘s army.  Some believe the occasion in question was deliverance during Hezekiah’s reign in 701 BC (2 Kings 19).  Others believe it to be concerning events during the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20:1-28).   Either way, this is a prayer of praise and thanksgiving to God for deliverance.

But it is more than that.  Verses 8-14 speak of God dwelling in His city forever, of how His praise reaches to the ends of the earth.  But we know that the literal Jerusalem would be destroyed in 70 A.D. after Israel rejected the Messiah; and we also know that most of the literal earth hardly was in the habit of praising God.  The key is in the second part of verse 8 – “the city of our God, which God will establish forever.”  This is clearly a reference to the New Jerusalem that will fulfill this passage by way of our Lord Jesus.

Read or listen to audio of ESV version of this selection from this link.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  For questions and help, please see the “FAQ” and “Summaries” pages there.

2 Kings 24 – Jerusalem Captured

English: A hilltop view of the ancient city of...

English: A hilltop view of the ancient city of Babylon, where King Nebuchadnezzar II, whose life spanned 630-562 B.C., built his hanging gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, had defeated and taken enough from Egypt, that its king “did not come again out of his land” any more.  So, in verse 1, we find that Jehoiakim has switched his allegiance from Egypt to Babylon – then he rebelled against that king.  So God sent bands against him from the Chaldeans, Moabites, Syrians and Ammonites to destroy Judah for the evils of Manasseh and the innocent blood he shed (verses 3-4).    Jehoiakim died and his son, Jehoiachin, became king in his place in 597 BC.  Nebuchadnezzar’s people besieged Jerusalem; and when Nebuchadnezzar himself came to the city, Jehoiachin surrendered to him and was taken captive.

They also carried off all the treasures from the house of the Lord and from the king’s house, just as Isaiah had told Hezekiah would happen in 2 Kings 20:16-18.  The king of Babylon took thousands captive back to Babylon; and made Mattaniah, Jehoiachin’s uncle, king, changing his name to Zedekiah.  He did evil in the sight of the Lord as well (verse 19), and then rebelled against Babylon, as the chapter closes.  But rebellion would be futile.

Read or listen to audio of ESV version of this selection from this link.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  For questions and help, please see the “FAQ” and “Summaries” pages there.

2 Kings 21 – Manasseh Reigns in Judah

Iron Age Judahite pillar-figurine of a popular...

Iron Age Judahite pillar-figurine of a popular fertility deity, possibly Asherah, associated in the Old Testament with Baal (e.g. 2 Kgs. 23:4-7) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Hezekiah’s son, Manasseh, begins his 55 year reign at the age of twelve (verse 1).  He has the dubious distinction of being known as the worst king Judah ever had.   He rebuilt the high places that his father, Hezekiah, had torn down.  He built altars for Baal, set a carved image of Asherah in the house of the Lord, and even sacrificed one of his own sons (verse 6).  Verses 9 and 11 say that Manasseh did more evil than the Amorites and all of the people God had brought Israel to the promised land to remove.  Manasseh’s despicable reign ends at his death in verse 18; and his son Amon walks right in his footsteps (verse 21) until his death in verse 26.

The disaster and captivity that had befallen Israel has been hinted at for the last few chapters, and is now declared a certainty by God in verses 10-14 (note especially verse 13).

Read or listen to audio of ESV version of this selection from this link.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  For questions and help, please see the “FAQ” and “Summaries” pages there.

2 Kings 20 – Hezekiah and the Babylonian Envoys

As is sometimes the case with the scriptures, part of chapter 20 occurs chronologically before chapter 19.  This chapter starts in verses 1-19 at about 713 BC – about twelve years before Sennacherib’s invasion 15 years before Hezekiah’s death (verse 6).  Hezekiah had become sick, and Isaiah has told him to set his house in order, as he was about to die.  Hezekiah’s tearful prayer in verses 2-3 is heard by the Lord, and He sends Isaiah back to let him know that he has been given 15 more years, and will be healed.   It is here also, that He promises to deliver Hezekiah and the city out of the hands of the Assyrians.  2 Kings 18:2 tells us that Hezekiah was 25 when he took the throne, and that he reigned 29 years – so we can deduce that he was only 39 at this time.  His beautiful, grateful psalm to the Lord is recorded in Isaiah 38.

Hezekiah's Tunnel נקבת השילוח

Hezekiah’s Tunnel נקבת השילוח (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The king of Babylon, Merodach-baladan, heard of Hezekiah’s sickness, and sent envoys with gifts (verse 12).  Verse 13 records Hezekiah’s pride at work, as he shows those envoys all the wealth in his house.  It is then that Isaiah informs him that Babylon will carry all of it away, and his sons will become eunuchs in their palace.  Hezekiah’s complacency at that news is both baffling and troubling, but a man who had just been miraculously healed would probably have a unique view about the will of God.

Side note:

Verse 20 refers to the tunnel that Hezekiah had cut, diverting water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, which laid within the city walls.  An inscription was cut into the conduit wall and is known as the Siloam Tunnel Inscription, commemorating that construction.  Ferrell Jenkins has several great photos and information about Hezekiah’s tunnel at this link to his Biblical Studies Info Page.

Read or listen to audio of ESV version of this selection from this link.

/Bob’s boy
___________________
some images © V. Gilbert & Arlisle F. Beers

Please note: I did not design the reading plan that I am following in my blog.  All of my comments in this blog, however, are solely my responsibility.  When reading ANY commentary, you should ALWAYS refer first to the scripture, which is God’s unchanging and unfailing word. Reading schedules, as well as a link to the site where you can get the reading plan that I’m currently following for yourself can be found on the “Bible Reading Schedules” page of my website at http://graceofourlord.com.  For questions and help, please see the “FAQ” and “Summaries” pages there.